Tomorrow, there will be a day of action for Net Neutrality. This topic has already been addressed many times, but here is a definition I find very clear:
Net neutrality is the idea that your internet service provider (ISP) — whether that’s Comcast, Verizon, or someone else — shouldn’t have the ability to pick and choose which service or content you can see, or make sites pay to have their content load quickly.
There is also a Stuff You Should Know episode about Net Neutrality, released today (June 11, 2017). All are very interesting resources that I’d recommend you to listen and/or read.
Why does Net Neutrality matter? To keep it short, it is more about setting the ground for a vision of the Net where any (legal) content is freely available to everyone connected, without discrimination by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) based on the origin of it.
Hence, my website should be equally served to you as Google is, without me (the content provider) having to go after the different ISPs and negotiate an open access to you, the consumer.
Net Neutrality also matters because it’s about giving equal chances for thriving businesses to reach out to their consumers. The “next big thing” would be unable to start and give a try to an uncharted business model if it’s killed in its infancy due to not being able to pay the ISPs for access.